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Mainstreaming VS Inclusion
Old 09-29-2006, 03:04 PM
 
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These two terms are used quite a bit, but I find at times that they are used incorrectly. Maybe this is a vent, but I feel compelled to set it straight.

Mainstreaming is a child w/ IEP going into a regular ed. class with the expectation that they will handle the coursework like any other student (thought modifications may be necessary).

Inclusion is a child w/ IEP who is going into the regular ed. class with the expectation that being in there is beneficial socially. They are being "included" in the activities of their same age peers, but they are not expected to be performing like them academically. Therefore, you may have a child in an inclusion situation where they may cover similar topics, but the work is set at their level.


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Thank you!
Old 09-29-2006, 06:44 PM
 
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dlcurry-
I feel like I never explain these well at all. I may borrow your explanation in the future.
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I would like to add...
Old 09-30-2006, 02:58 PM
 
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You said "modifications may be necessary." Modifications are always necessary for a child with an IEP. That's why the child has it. If accommodations alone sufficed, the child would just need a 504. Dyslexia is probably the best example of this because so many dyslexic children are mainstreamed. Dyslexic children often do not read, write, or perform math calculations on level, so these children have IEP's that give modifications in these areas, but the child is mainstreamed because with appropriate accommodations and modifications, the child can function very well in the general education classroom. Possible scenarios are:

For the dyslexic mainstreamed child who has an IEP for reading, the child will be mainstreamed but pulled on occassion for individualized reading instruction (modification), will be allowed to use books on tape or CD-R (accommodation), will have his/her tests read aloud to him (accommodation), and will be given simplified reading material, like a condensed or simplified version of the classroom novel (modification).

For the mainstreamed dyslexic child who has an IEP for writing, the child will be mainstreamed but pulled on occassion for individualized writing instruction (modification), his/her writing assignments will be graded on the child's writing level not the class's (modification), the child's writing assignments will be reduced (accommodation), the child will have the opportunity to give oral responses on tests (accommodation), and the child will have assistive technology to help with the writing process (accommodation or modification, depending on what degree of help is given).

For the mainstreamed dyslexic child who has an IEP for mathematical calculations, the child will be mainstreamed but pulled on occassion for individualized math instruction (usually done on computer, and this is a modification), the child will be allowed to use a calculator (accommodation and/or modification, depending on when the calculator is used--if used for homework and classwork, it is an accommodation, but if used for tests, it is a modification), the child will be given less problems for homework (accommodation), and the child will be given problems that teach the same concept but at a lower level (modification).

So...I interpret the differences between inclusion and mainstreaming somewhat differently. The fact that the child has an IEP signifies that the child cannot perform on level in some area academically, and the IEP addresses the need for modifications to the curriculum or to the instructional environment in the area in which the child is not performing on level. For the child who has an IEP and is in general ed, the idea is that the child can perform on level in so many areas that there is no reason to remove the child from general education. Modifications will be given for the area in which the child is below level, but the child will perform on level otherwise.

Last edited by lillian; 09-30-2006 at 06:40 PM..
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Old 09-30-2006, 06:28 PM
 
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I'd like to know how you feel about this, as a SPED person. I'd like to know your take on this. The schools in my area are slowly doing away with resource. The LD child working grade levels below level, whose academic challenges really don't allow the child to be mainstreamed, is being put in general education classes that are co-taught by a general ed and a SPED person. The SPED person works with the SPED kids one-on-one and in small group, modifies the lesson plans, and modifies the texts and other books used. I call that inclusion. Do you? The schools out here don't call it that. Just curious. I don't get a chance to discuss these things outside of my community very often, so it's intesting to listen to others' takes on situations, particularly people in different areas of the country.
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Old 10-01-2006, 12:54 PM
 
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If the child is using the same materials as others only modified, then it would be a mainstreaming situation. If you are covering the same concepts as the others but using different materials and have markedly different expectations, then I would call it inclusion.

In a general sense, most students with learning disabilities are mainstreamed in that they have many areas that they are at or near grade level in and need modifications to be successful.

Many of the inclusion models are set up for students who are no where near the academic capabilities of their same-aged peers (mental retardation for example) but are placed in regular class for the social benefit. All of their work must be toned down to their level, so using the regular curriculum/materials may not be appropriate. So, in that case you would have a situation where separate materials etc. need to be used.


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Old 10-15-2006, 02:03 PM
 
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For a completely different take....Mainstreaming to me would suggest that a child is already in a separate room and mainstreaming is an attempt to get that child in contact with age-appropriate peers for some portion of the day. It usually begins with small chunks of time, like eating lunch with an age-appropriate class or attending special classes (Art, Music, etc) with them.

Inclusion is the move toward not pulling the child into a resource room for sped services. Rather, that child is served in a reg. ed room with the assistance (both direct and indirect) of a Sped Teacher. Some schools in our state have moved to a school-wide inclusion model. No one is in a separate room. The Speducators work in tandem with 2 homeroom teachers per grade level who absorb all the sped kids in that grade level.
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Old 10-21-2006, 08:24 AM
 
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My school is an all-inclusion school. But, those 2 terms are thrown around all of the time. We do not have Resource Rooms for students to learn and reach their IEP goals. When they are MR, or one grade level behind, they stay with their grade level peers. I teach 4th grade at a year round school. Last year, I had 4 students out of 24 that were on pre-K / K level. They had IEP's based on skills on their levels. Honestly, without listening comprehension, it was extremely exhausting for everyone. I was unsure how to take the 4th grade curriculum and pre-K it down for them. The vocabulary word alone were extremely difficuly. They were practicing writing their first names in print, while the rest of the class was writing 1-2 page essays in paragraph and cursive formats. I felt like I was juggling everyday. My pricipal tells us teachers to make up "packets" (I HATE THAT WORD) for them to do during instruction. These packets should be on their IEP learning level. Yet, us teachers have to hunt down and copy such materials (not to mention the copy paper budget, the "Oh I lost it", or "I can't find it"). One student actually ended up rebelling and writing in the bathroom that I was a b***h because he thought the work was too hard and too much. I just couldn't wait for the year to end. Now, they have been passed on to 5th grade and those teachers are complaining to me. What can I do, right? It's just frustrating because we are supossed to be getting them ready for the real world....

This year, I am starting all over again, but I only have 2 IEP students. They are on 1st grade level, so I have to hunt down all new stuff for "packets" all over again, just so they can raise their hand in the middle of my lesson and say that they can't find it.....and where do I pull a new one out from.

Sorry, this was so long. I just agree that people tend to confuse the 2 terms and many people, especialliy the students, suffer because of it.
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Old 10-26-2006, 05:10 PM
 
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I found one significant thing about your comments, not once through
the entire posting did you mention a positive thought toward the sped
children. This bothers me since you are the teacher, and I wonder how
this attitude inadvertantly effects the child. comment please
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Sorry to offend
Old 11-06-2006, 04:12 PM
 
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Sorry if our responses offend you. First of all, we needed to vent in an "ok" area that would allow such annonymous venting. Second, my vent was geared toward poor administration and how they handle the two "term" throughout our school. Lastly, it angers me the most to see that my school simply pushes the child's problems onto the teacher without support. I feel the children are the ones neglected and it's not by the teacher, rather the labels and "high-ups." I wish there was more that I could do to help my students in need. Most of the time I feel bad for them (being on a kindergarten level, but expected to comprehend 4th grade material...including French). It's hard enough to teach the 4th grade material to my regular ed students. But, administration believes in school wide inclusion (there are pros and cons of this). They tell us to copy tons of thick packets to throw in the sped students when we teach skills they have "trouble" with. I feel that (depending on the child), he/ he should be given the opportunity to learn on his/ her own level. We do more harm then good. So, again I am sorry if my comment offended you. I do not mean for this to sound like I am yelling or that I am writing this in anger. I appologize if it comes off that way.
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Old 03-04-2008, 08:41 PM
 
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I find it bothersome that you let this teacher's vent bother you. Since you are in SPED maybe you should look at how you represent yourself as a professional in this field, especially toward general ed. teachers. I find it frustrating for SPED teachers like myself when other SPED teachers have a chip on their shoulder and act as if, it is them against the world. Didn't you know this before you signed up for SPED? Most people do not know how to act around children with special needs and it is of no fault of their own. Some of us have the gift of SPED and some have the gift of teaching english or math. No teacher should have to teach a special population without the proper training because it is a diservice to all of the children and adds undue pressure on the teacher. The fact that you pointed out that she had not said one positive word about the children shows your insensitivity toward this teacher and shows that you are not an english teacher because you did not comprehend the main point of the paragraph. Does this same insensitive attitude, and poor english skills inadvertantly effect the children you work with? Comment please.


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Old 03-31-2008, 10:15 AM
 
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Hi, I am attending an education class at Baruch college and am doing a topic of inclusion in education. I would like to inform my peers what the difference of mainstreaming and inclusion is, as even on here some don't have a clear definition of it. Also, inclusion seems ideal, but the only problems with it is the implementation at times. Do any of you see negative points inclusion would have on the students whether it be a disabled/normal child?
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Old 06-05-2008, 06:56 PM
 
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I am writing a paper on inclusion/mainstreaming and thought they were the same actually. Thanks for giving me clarity on the topic!
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modification vs. accomodations
Old 08-31-2008, 12:29 PM
 
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All IEP's do not require a modification, a change to curriculum. This is often incorrectly used and confused for accomodations and adaptations.
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Excellent points
Old 08-04-2009, 09:34 PM
 
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Rozz, your points were open, well-thought out and very accurate. It's great to hear someone who can get off there high horse and just "be real" for a moment. I respect your ability to reflect and your ability to detect the issues and inequities. From where I stand, it is clear you are sensitive the the needs of your students, both sped and gen.ed.

Unfortunately, this is the direction of education these days. It's all about budget. The fact the rules and the budget are created even higher-up -- by politicians. Unfortunately, their children usually go to private schools and they get whatever additional support they need in the form of high paid tutors that come to the home.

Although I'm a teacher (have done both sped and gen.ed), I have gotten to know a few administrators rather well. It seems their hands are tied and they are required to feed us with baloney. Most, however, know it is wrong, but are stuck and need or want to help those in the classroom make the best of it. This happens at varying levels of success. Sigh...
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Sorry for the typo's. It's late.
Old 08-04-2009, 09:38 PM
 
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Very sorry for the typo's. It's late and my typing gets a little shakey at this hour.
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accommodations/modifications
Old 09-28-2009, 09:18 AM
 
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RLM5,
Thanks for setting Lillian straight regarding modifications. Just because a student has an IEP it does not automatically mean modifications are used. Accommodations first. LRE people - Special Education 101. Go learn something before posting. It just adds to the confusion.
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Oops.
Old 10-12-2010, 05:42 PM
 
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Sorry, but your definition of inclusion is entirely wrong. An inclusive classroom is when children with disabilities are included in a general education classroom for the ENTIRE SCHOOL DAY. Obviosuly the appropriate resources need to be in place for this to occur. It should also be noted that no more than 10% of the class should be children with disabilities. Any more than 10% would not reflect the population of the real world and therefore would not be a realistic setting.
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Old 10-07-2011, 03:44 AM
 
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I'm reading through these and I can't say as I agree or, necessarily, disagree with the distinctions between inclusion and mainstreaming except for one very key point... INCLUSION IS NOT ONLY ABOUT THE SOCIAL BENEFIT. Research shows that better academic, social and emotional outcomes are consistently realized for those with special needs AS WELL AS THEIR TYPICALLY-DEVELOPING PEERS! Inclusion is being educated side-by-side with your typically developing peers, in the classroom you would have been in had there been no disability at all. The natural population of the classroom should include the same distribution of typically developing vs. individuals with special needs as is found the general population. It has been widely accepted that 10% of the general population has some level of disability. That means, in a classroom of 20 children, 2 of those children would just naturally have a disability of some type. These children -- with or without an IEP, 504 or any other official diagnosis -- would receive support, modifications, accommodations (the law requires individualized instruction for all children) according to their needs to help them succeed academically to the best of their ability.

Inclusion is a philosophy and practice that is being well administered in some states and horribly, or not at all, in others (NY falls in the latter 2 categories). The key to successful inclusion is the "appropriate support" to ensure academic success (at the individual level). Done correctly, it costs less and is more effective. Done incorrectly, everyone either goes back to the old system saying, "see, it doesn't work!" (despite the research) OR they keep doing what they always did but now call it "inclusion" and claim the children who don't succeed (read: w/o the support) are too disabled to "get it" (it's the child's fault, not the system) and recommend the child be placed in an even more highly restricted contained classroom... the one that was held over just in case... for those who really needed special education applied the old-fashioned, segregated way. The challenge in implementing REAL inclusion and making it work is UNteaching the old way -- segregation --and REteaching what appropriate support looks like in the gen ed classrooms and resource rooms.

This process/metamorphosis mirrors the civil rights movement where the white folks thought forced integration was the answer. Most places are doing at least part-time integration in the gen-ed class, often called co-teaching, with up to half the children having special needs. In the matter of race, we've finally come to an inclusionary mindset where a child goes to his neighborhood school and classroom regardless of race. THAT's where we need to get with the disability rights movement. Human beings. Disability, like different skin tones, is natural.
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