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AniFan15 AniFan15 is offline
 
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letter reversals
Old 09-25-2012, 01:30 PM
 
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I am substitute teaching an aphasia class, and I have a student with dyslexia. He is a third grade student who reads at a first grade level. He is struggling with d/b/p/q/g, which is understandable. Do you have any suggestions for activities/resources on how to help him? I'm at my wit's end :/


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shad070309 shad070309 is offline
 
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Letter reversals
Old 09-25-2012, 03:29 PM
 
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If a child makes reversals . . .
Rule out any vision problems.

Children often have a problem reading from a shiny white board or bright white pages. Try colored transparencies or colored file folder dividers. Use these to place over the white pages; you will want to find which color works best for your child.

Double space everything, student need to see lots of white space. (Do not care as to how much paper is being used.) Graph paper is great for math.

Provide an individual number line/alphabet strip for easy reference.

Have student write new vocabulary/spelling/sight words in syllables. Have them write them with their finger (balls of fingers) on the table, on sandpaper, in the air with full arm extension. This helps stimulate the memory parts of the brain.

Spelling is often trouble area. (See Spelling Helps Guide) Reading is done much simpler by sight as opposed to phonics.

Trace a word or letter from left to right; following the direction of an arrow at the top of a page or word card (tracing materials may come from newspapers, magazines, overhead transparencies).

Print a word, making the first letter green (go) and the last letter red (stop).

Do activities that require awareness of left to right directionality (Simon Says and the Hokey
Pokey, Simon Says).

Physically guide the child's hand.

Use flexible practice (over teach!). In other words, try to get flexibility by having the child construct the word or letter in different places with a variety of materials such as magnetic letters, MagnaDoodle, with chalk, on the carpet, in the air, on a white board, make it with etc. Take a Ziploc bag and squeeze in either mustard or hair gel into the bag, creating a gel pack. Your student can practice writing their words with their finger in the gel pack. Write words on each other’s back.

Have your child write their spelling words on the sidewalk or driveway using chalk; use a bucket with water and paintbrush.

Trace over dots to form letters/numbers.
Sort letters by structure/feature (circles, lines, etc.).


Talk through letter formation. There are commercial programs that provide the "talk," but the ones that teachers, parents and kids make up on their own often seem to work the best for those individuals. Their own language helps as a memory tool.

Purchase and use school font software that has arrows to show directionality. Enlarge the letter in a Word document, and place in a plastic sleeve for tracing activities. This produces action in the whole hand and wrist. The one I have and use also offers dotted patterns for tracing handwriting attributes.

On letter reversals, have kids make the letters out of clay i.e. roll out the "snakes" and form b - practice one letter exclusively of the one they confuse it with. Whole sight words can be done this way as well. This is a technique that has shown good results with autistic children as well.

Use a hole punch as a tactile anchor to indicate where to begin writing.

Before a lesson begins it is a good idea to briefly go through what areas will be covered. Break down the lessons into smaller units so that the child does not feel overwhelmed with what has to be done.

Highlight each direction in a different color.

Break down lessons into smaller, easier to understand units. In all subjects introduce lessons sequentially, and practice

Often children have a problem with organization, this coupled with a memory issue can be very hard on them regarding independent assignments.
It may be hard for them to concentrate with interruptions, others talking or fidgeting constantly
– minimize outside interference. (turn off the TV, etc.)

When grading, avoid marking down for mistakes not directly associated with the work. If a student is writing a paragraph when working on punctuation for example, it is not necessary to “red pen” every spelling error, or criticize handwriting. Just let them focus on one task at a time.

Have the parents cut a rectangular window in an index card a little larger than the size of the text that the child is reading most frequently i.e. the phonics readers. (Do this by folding a horizontal index card in half short end to short end the cutting a small rectangular notch out of the middle) Then have the child use this "window" to frame the text as he/she reads - moving it along the lines at his/her own pace (not trying to frame each word though) Often this cuts down on the "jumping around" of the words and allows kids with tracking problems to focus better.
**I hope I didn't confuse you terribly by this explanation - it's much easier to demonstrate.

Use 2 large index cards when working, covering up all but the math problems they are currently working on, or the line which they are currently reading.

When having difficulty decoding a new word or stumbling over old words, have the student
identify the vowel pattern. Cover up everything before the vowel and then identify the sounds. Uncover and read. They will no longer read was as saw or no as on.

Copy a word or letter on a typewriter or word processor.

Try body spelling it is fun and gets them moving a bit. Write spelling word on an index card so they can see the word they are working on, stand up and orally spell the word. Any letters that go above the center line hands reach up above their head, b,d,f,h,k,l,t. center letters touch the waist, a,c,e,i,m,n,o,r,s,u,v,w,x,z. letters go below the line – bend over and touch their knees or toes, g,j,p,q,y. Example – word: long – l-arms up in air, o-touch waist, n-touch waist, g-touch toes and say word again, long. Touch/reach while saying each letter. dog – d-air, o-waist, g-
toes, dog. mouse - m-waist, o-waist, u-waist, s-waist, e-waist, mouse.
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Old 09-25-2012, 04:37 PM
 
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the previous person posted a lot of things and hopefully you'll find one or two that will stick with him. Give each method a few days and I wouldn't do more than two at a time....especially the writing ones.

The tactile/kinesthetic ones will be best. I just took a course on dyslexia and one of the things that was big in the course was "exercising" other areas besides handwriting.

It's the "wiring" that's not working properly, creating these reversals. Activities to help fix reversals can simply seem like PE activities.
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Old 09-26-2012, 02:45 PM
 
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I'd move the student into cursive. There is a lot less lifting of the pencil in cursive and the b/d's are different enough they won't confuse them anymore. Diana King has a good cursive workbook. She has the student start the lowercase cursive letters all at the same point. Not a fan of the Zane Bloser workbooks.
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